What is network monitoring?

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Last updated on: June 2, 2024

Network monitoring is the process of systematically watching over a computer network to catch any issues or bottlenecks in real-time, ensuring everything runs as smoothly as possible. 

This vigilant system provides immediate insights into the performance of your network. It looks at traffic flow, server status, and application performance, flagging anything that seems out of the ordinary. This allows IT teams to jump into action at the first sign of trouble, often before users even notice there’s an issue. 

From identifying overloaded servers to spotting failed network connections, network monitoring keeps the digital lifelines of your business open, secure, and fast.  

Why is network monitoring important?

Network monitoring does more than just keep an eye on data flowing through your systems — it also boosts your operations, beefs up security, and makes sure your customers are happy. 

Let’s take a closer look at what it offers and why it’s so essential.

  • Enhanced user experience: Network monitoring proactively identifies performance issues, fostering a positive user experience that builds trust and loyalty. It keeps an eye on online interactions, ensuring fast website loading times, responsive applications, and smooth transactions. 
  • Maximizing uptime and availability: Network monitoring minimizes risks by quickly detecting problems that could halt operations, ensuring services are always accessible and productivity remains uninterrupted.
  • Rapid issue identification and resolution: Network monitoring serves as a vigilant troubleshooter, allowing IT teams to quickly resolve problems before they escalate, ensuring minimal impact on operations.
  • Proactive security vigilance: Network monitoring helps identify suspicious activities, unauthorized access attempts, and potential vulnerabilities, enabling prompt action to mitigate risks and protect sensitive data.
  • Optimized resource allocation: Network monitoring provides insights into resource utilization, helping make informed decisions on infrastructure investment and adjustments.
  • Data-driven decision-making: Real-time performance data from network monitoring informs strategic decisions regarding upgrades, expansions, and optimizations, enhancing a business’s competitiveness and agility in the marketplace.
  • Compliance and accountability: Network monitoring supports compliance efforts by tracking network activity, ensuring transparency, and providing an audit trail for accountability.
  • Scalability and future-proofing: Network monitoring aids in preparing for future growth by identifying trends and anticipating resource needs, ensuring networks can adapt and scale as the business evolves.

How does network monitoring work?

Network monitoring operates through a finely tuned process that keeps a vigilant eye on every aspect of your network’s health. This process involves identifying all devices and connections that make up the network infrastructure, from routers and switches to servers and endpoints. 

Each of these elements plays a crucial role in the network’s overall performance, and monitoring them ensures that every piece of the puzzle is functioning correctly.

Once the network components are identified, the monitoring system sets intervals for checking each component’s status. These intervals are not one-size-fits-all; instead, they’re tailored based on the criticality of each element. More vital components may be checked more frequently, ensuring that any potential issues are caught and addressed as swiftly as possible.

At the heart of the monitoring process are two key protocols: SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) and ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol). SNMP is used for collecting detailed information from network devices, such as traffic data, errors, and the status of device components. ICMP, on the other hand, is primarily used for basic network diagnostic tasks like ping tests, which help determine the availability of devices on the network.

The real magic happens when the device information collected via SNMP and ICMP is combined with broader network data. This allows for a comprehensive view of the network’s health, enabling IT teams to see not just isolated incidents but how each part of the network impacts the others. For example, a spike in traffic on one server could affect the performance of applications running on another, and network monitoring helps identify these interdependencies.

By continuously analyzing this wealth of data, network monitoring tools can alert administrators to issues in real time—often before they impact users. Whether it’s a server nearing its capacity, a faulty network connection, or an unusual traffic pattern that could indicate a security threat, network monitoring provides the insights needed to maintain optimal network performance and reliability. 

Types of network monitoring protocols

Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)

Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) provides a standardized method to retrieve vital performance data from network devices. It plays a crucial role in keeping networks healthy by offering deep insights into critical metrics such as bandwidth usage, CPU load, memory utilization, and much more.

SNMP operates by collecting data from various network devices like routers, switches, and servers. In fact, each device equipped with SNMP capabilities can be queried for specific information about its performance and status. 

This data is then stored in a structured database known as the Management Information Base (MIB). The MIB acts as a comprehensive catalog of all the information that can be gathered via SNMP, organizing it in a way that’s accessible and understandable.

One of the key features of SNMP is its use of Object Identifiers (OIDs) to uniquely catalog each piece of information in the MIB. OIDs allow SNMP to precisely identify the data being requested or sent, ensuring that the monitoring system can accurately gather and interpret device performance metrics. Each OID corresponds to a specific variable on a device, such as a particular interface’s bandwidth usage or a server’s current CPU load.

Through SNMP, network administrators can efficiently query devices for these OIDs and receive up-to-date information about their network’s health and performance. This system enables proactive monitoring and management, allowing for quick responses to potential issues and ensuring that the network remains stable and efficient. 


The Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is primarily focused on the health and reachability of devices across a network. 

ICMP works by sending messages—often referred to as “pings”—to various points in a network and waiting for responses. When you ping a device, ICMP sends a request and measures whether it gets a reply and how long that reply takes. This simple yet powerful process is key to identifying network connectivity issues. 

📍If a ping doesn’t return, it’s a sign that something’s amiss—a device might be down, a connection may be severed, or there could be a routing issue.

Beyond just checking if devices are reachable, ICMP is instrumental in measuring network performance. By analyzing the time it takes for a ping to go to a device and back (known as round-trip time), network administrators can gauge the network’s latency. High latency can indicate congestion or problems along the data path, impacting everything from file transfers to video calls.

How do network monitoring tools work?

Monitoring network hardware

When it comes to ensuring your network runs like a well-oiled machine, adopting a device-centric approach to monitor network hardware is key. By focusing on the physical, datalink, and network layers of the OSI model, companies can get a comprehensive view of their network’s health, right down to the nuts and bolts.

At the heart of this approach is the meticulous monitoring of physical components, including cabling and hardware devices such as routers, switches, and hubs. These elements are the backbone of your network, facilitating the flow of data across your organization. 

Enter Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP),which provides the tools needed to keep tabs on inbound and outbound network traffic and essential metrics that paint a clear picture of your network’s performance. 

This includes uptime, indicating how long devices have been running without interruption, and CPU utilization, which highlights how hard your network devices are working. 

Bandwidth usage and throughput offer insights into the volume of data being handled, while interface errors/discards point to potential issues in data transmission. IP metrics, on the other hand, shed light on the efficiency and reliability of data routing within your network.

By leveraging SNMP, network administrators can set up alerts for when certain thresholds are crossed.

Monitoring network hardware through this device-centric approach, underpinned by SNMP, ensures that the physical infrastructure supporting your digital operations is always in peak condition. 

Monitoring live network traffic

Monitoring live network traffic allows network administrators to keep an eye on the health of services, applications, and the intricate web of network dependencies that are essential to your organization’s operations. By watching this live data flow, teams can spot issues as they happen, from sudden spikes in demand that could strain resources to suspicious patterns that might indicate a security breach.

Key to this monitoring are the protocols that govern data transmission, especially those operating at the Transport and Application layers of the OSI model. Protocols such as TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) at the Transport layer ensure data is delivered reliably, while HTTP/HTTPS, SMTP, and FTP at the Application layer facilitate the high-level data services we use daily. Monitoring these protocols helps ensure that data packets are not just moving but reaching their destinations efficiently and securely.

This is where the extended Berkeley Packet Filter (eBPF) can help. eBPF allows for a more granular tracking of network data flow, providing insights without demanding extensive resources or deep intervention into the kernel of operating systems.  

In essence, monitoring live network traffic is about more than oversight—it’s about actively ensuring the robustness, security, and efficiency of your network. It empowers teams to make informed decisions, swiftly respond to issues, and maintain the high level of service quality that users expect. With tools like eBPF, this monitoring becomes even more insightful, paving the way for proactive network management and optimization.

Main functions of network monitoring systems


The first step in network monitoring is discovery. NMSs automatically scan a network to identify all connected devices, from servers and switches to routers and endpoints. This process creates a comprehensive inventory of the network’s components, giving administrators a clear view of what they’re working with. 

This automatic discovery is essential for keeping up with dynamic network environments where devices are constantly added, removed, or changed.


Once an NMS knows what’s on the network, it can then map the connections between these devices. This mapping creates a visual representation of the network’s architecture, showing how devices interact and are interconnected. 


With discovery and mapping out of the way, continuous monitoring comes into play. NMSs keep a constant watch on network performance and health, tracking metrics such as traffic flow, bandwidth usage, and device status. This ongoing surveillance allows for the early detection of issues before they escalate into bigger problems.


One of the most critical functions of an NMS is alerting administrators to potential issues. Whether it’s an unexpected downtime, a spike in traffic that could indicate a security breach, or simply a device reaching its capacity, NMSs can be configured to send instant notifications. These alerts enable IT teams to react swiftly, often resolving issues before they impact users.


Finally, NMSs compile data into detailed reports. These reports provide insights into network performance over time, highlighting trends, potential bottlenecks, and areas for improvement. They are essential for strategic planning, helping administrators make informed decisions about upgrades, capacity planning, and overall network health.

It’s important to note that while all NMSs offer these five functions, their capabilities can vary significantly from one system to another. Some may excel in real-time performance monitoring, while others might offer more robust mapping or reporting tools. The key is to find an NMS that aligns with your specific needs, ensuring your network remains a robust foundation for your business operations.

How can UptimeRobot help with network monitoring

UptimeRobot stands out by offering an accessible, feature-rich platform for businesses of all sizes to monitor their network performance effectively. Its user-friendly interface, combined with powerful monitoring and diagnostic features, makes it an invaluable tool for maintaining the health and efficiency of your network.

Key features and benefits:

  • 24/7 monitoring: UptimeRobot keeps a constant watch on your network with round-the-clock monitoring. This means you’re immediately alerted to issues, allowing for swift action to minimize downtime and its impacts on your operations.
  • Multi-protocol support: UptimeRobot offers monitoring for HTTP, HTTPS, TCP, and Ping among others. This ensures that regardless of how your network is structured or which protocols it relies on, UptimeRobot can keep an eye on it.
  • Real-time alerts: When UptimeRobot detects a problem, it immediately sends out alerts via email, SMS, or integrated third-party communication platforms like Slack, ensuring that your IT team can react promptly to address the issue.
  • Performance reporting: With detailed reports on uptime, response times, and overall network performance, you can identify trends, anticipate potential issues, and make informed decisions to enhance network reliability.
  • API access: For businesses with custom monitoring needs or those who wish to integrate network performance data into their own systems, UptimeRobot’s API provides a flexible solution. This allows for the creation of custom dashboards or the integration of monitoring data into existing IT management tools.

SSLmonitoring: UptimeRobot offers SSL monitoring, alerting you before your certificates expire or if there are any issues and keeping your website secure and trustworthy.

What is network monitoring?

Network monitoring is the process of continuously overseeing a computer network for any failures or deficiencies to ensure the network operates at its optimum performance. It involves evaluating the network’s operations, including traffic, applications, and services, to identify and address issues before they escalate into more significant problems.

Why is network monitoring important?

Network monitoring helps detect early signs of issues like traffic bottlenecks, unauthorized access, and network failures, allowing for swift resolutions. This proactive approach minimizes downtime, supports security measures, and ensures a seamless user experience, making it essential for businesses of all sizes.

How does a network monitoring tool work?

A network monitoring tool works by scanning the network for any signs of trouble, using protocols like SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) to collect data from various network devices. This data provides insights into the health and performance of the network, including traffic flow, device status, and error rates. The tool then analyzes this information, often in real-time, to alert administrators to potential issues, allowing for prompt action to maintain network integrity.

Laura Clayton

Written by

Laura Clayton

Laura Claytonhas over a decade of experience in the tech industry, she brings a wealth of knowledge and insights to her articles, helping businesses maintain optimal online performance. Laura's passion for technology drives her to explore the latest in monitoring tools and techniques, making her a trusted voice in the field.